Module #1 - Training  Abstract

Surgical Ultrasound






Abdominal Ultrasound

 Abdominal Ultrasound

Calin Tiu




The transcutaneous abdominal ultrasound module, the first built in our platform, offers the surgeon a wide and deep view on the anatomy and pathology of the internal organs. The skills acquired by the student will allow him independence and speed in decision making as well as a good control of the postoperative evolution.

At the same time, this module is a foundation for approaching high-specific applications such as intraoperative ultrasound or ultrasound guidance techniques of various surgical procedures associated with minimally invasive surgery.




  • Optimization (depth, frequency, focus, gain)
  • Image Acquisition
  • Follow the inferior border of Liver
  • Follow the superior border
  • Measure:
  • the right lobe
  • the left lobe
  • the caudatum lobe
  • the mid claviculardiameter
  • the Portal Vein including Color and Wave Doppler evaluation
  • The Biliary Main Duct
  • Appreciate the Eco structure (homogeneity)
  • Appreciate the parenchyma
  • Appreciate the ecogenity
  • Hepatorenal space
  • Extra hepatic ducts
  • Intra hepatic ducts
  • Diaphragm
  • Suprahepatic veins

Gall bladder

  • Identify the gallbladder regions in the sonogram
  • Determine the dimension
  • Evaluate the GB wall
  • Evaluate the GB contests


  • Anatomic components and normal size
  • Vascular landmarks
  • Pancreatic duct
  • Pathological findings in pancreatitis,tumors, cysts, pseudocysts


  • Localization
  • Measurement
  • Diaphragm examination
  • Splenic vein measurement


  • Ultrasound Indication
  • How should a kidney be scanned
  • Normal dimensions
  • Accepted size discrepancy
  • Renal pyramids
  • Urinary bladder
  • Ultrasound features for Cyst, hydronephrosis, tumors, lithiasis


Digestive Tract @ Abdominal Wall

At the end of this module the trainees have to recognize:

  • The diaphragm
  • Abdominal esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Pylorus
  • Duodenum
  • Small Bowel
  • Large Bowel
  • Appendices
  • Anus
  • Ultrasound pathological findings


Identify structures of abdominal wall like:

  • Skin
  • Fat (F)
  • Linea alba
  • external oblique muscle (EO)
  • internal oblique muscle (IO)
  • transversusabdominis muscle (TA)
  • rectus abdominis (RA)
  • peritoneum (arrow)
  • aponeurosis of external oblique
  • anterior part of the aponeurosis of internal oblique


Recognize US feature for:


  • Hernia
  • Hematoma
  • Abscess
  • Seroma
  • Lipoma
  • Suture Granuloma
  • Muscular tumors

Abdominal vessels

  • Abdominal Aorta
  • Normal diameter
  • Bifurcation
  • Aneurysm, surgical indication
  • Celiac trunk
  • Superior Mesenteric Artery
  • Iliac Arteries
  • Renal Arteries
  • Vena Cava
  • Iliac veins
  • Portal vein branches
  • Hepatic veins